The British era was the most evil era in which they were said to have committed atrocities and colonized numerous African countries, including the spoiling of resources.
The existence of the British government and the missionaries came as a result of the entrance of the British government and the missionaries as well.
Meanwhile, Max Siollu will be in a position to explain the colonial aspect and the work of the missionaries.
The History Of The Colonial North And South Of Nigeria
When the Colonials established Nigeria, it showed that they split the country into two, which is the northern protectorate and the southern protectorate, in 1900, before it was unified in 1914, along with a chunk of administration that was known as the Royal Nigerian Company, a British state in 1886.
These groups were responsible for punishing the Nigerian people, especially from the southern Nigerian region that was created in 1900.
It is based on Siollum, who writes that even though Britain created southern Nigeria in 1900, it took over twenty years of continual military operations for Britain to establish control of the south- east.
Which went to the point of killing about 10, 000. It was at this point that the northern soldiers were used by the British to suppress Igbo communities.
The Main Reason For The War That Caused Their Downfall
The Aro Confederacy, whose powers extended across Eastern Nigeria and beyond, once faced a severe challenge in the last decades of the 19th century through increasing British colonial penetration of the hinterland.
However, the Aro people and their allies resisted the British penetration with a claim of some combined factors that could spark an insurgency between the two sides. Those claims included economic, political, and religious concerns.
According to Sir Ralph Moore, the British commander of the Nigeria coast protectorate who advanced the war view more reasons why the war took place, he made his point known with a reasonable concern that it had caused much change in the Aro people’ s ways of life. His reasons were;
To put an end to slave dealing and trade, accomplished with the dealing proclamation No. 5 of 1901 throughout the territory from the first of January till date.
To abolish the juju hierarchy of the Aro tribe, which by superstition, cheating, and fraud causes much injustice even within the tribe generally and the establishment of government, it is essential to break it since the power of the priesthood is worth recognition for sales of slaves.
To open up the entire Aro country to civilization and engage them in legitimate trading.
Introducing a currency in lieu of or exchange for slaves, brass rods, and other forms of native currency so as to facilitate trade transactions.
Last but not least, a labor market was to be established in place of the current system of slavery.
The Aspect Of Religion
But the British, for their part, could argue that they brought Christianity into Nigeria as well as the two separated nations. On Siollun, it was the missionaries that established Christianity, not the colonial government.
They included the establishment of schools in Nigeria, so yes, they might have a little inpact in the Muslim north. They discourage human sacrifice, slavery, twin infanticide, and polygamy among the Nigerian people.
The Role Of Christians In Developing The Country’ s System Of Worship
However, at this point, it was said that the missionaries who established the church missionary society played a vital role in shaping the main identities of those who lived in southern Nigeria.
The south- west of the country was also made up of different communities that speak different languages but have a similar language, yet didn’ t go with its full understanding.
But, with the existence of Samuel Ajayi Crowther, a man who understood the Bible from its normal English language just as the British had brought it to the Yoruba- speaking language in 1850, all of this began to change.
An Anglican clergyman born in Nigeria and trained by a Yoruba family also brought the Yoruba speaking language, which had been split into different forms, into a single ethnic group.
As Ajayi built up these missionaries’ beliefs and bible transmission, the first governor general of the unified, Fredrick Luguard, questioned how they could be. His actions were said to be the result of much deliberation.
It also led to what brought about the pro- independent leaders a decade later. Such as Obafemi Awolowo and Nnamdi Azikiwe, who also dismissed the acts of the British system of worship and gave them their dignity.
The Defeat Of Arochukwu
Aro raids and invasions on British communities began in 1890 in order to halt British colonial penetration.
While the British prepared for the invasion of Arochukwu in 1901, after being delayed due to manpower shortages in September 1899, Sir Ralph Moore and the Royal Niger Company planned an attack against the Aro and their oracle.
The Aro launched their last major offense at the first major port before the Aro Expedition by the British force.
Meanwhile, the Aro war led by Okoro Toti sacked Obegu, a British ally, leading to the death of 400 people and prompting immediate revenge by the British. In the battle
that sprung up, Lt. Col. Arthur Forbes Montano led 87 officers, 1550 soldiers, and 2000 carriers in four axes of advance to Arochukwu from Oguta, Akwete, Unwena, and Itu in a counter insurgency campaign.
In view of this, Aro forces resisted all axes strongly, even with their lack of modern weapons. Yet, Arochukwu was captured on the 28th of December after four days of fierce battle both in and around the city.
The Ibini Ukpabi shrine was totally destroyed as the battles continued till 1902, when Aro forces were finally defeated in the last major battle at Bende.
Some of the Aro leaders went into hiding after being defended by the British, like Okoro Toti, who was caught, tried by a tribunal, and hanged at the end alongside Eze Kanu Okoro (the king of Arochukwu).