Kano, in particular, is one of the northern Nigerian areas that is surrounded by most of the hausa- speaking languages. The area is known today for the industrial life of the people, yet it has marked them that they once experienced a battle that really caused their fall in 1903, known as the fall or battle of Kano.
However, the battle of Kano was a battle between them and the British Empire, also known as the Sokoto Caliphates of the Kano emirate.
Kano is also called Kano City. It is one of the few states that has its state as its capital as well. It can be found on the Jakara River during ancient times, but the city didn’ t just exist without a founder attached to it.
Therefore, it owes its existence to a blacksmith of the Gaya tribe who founded the city as a result of his searching for iron and the discovery of stone tools at Dalla Hill.
After his discovery, the reign of King Gajemasu (1095– 1340) became the period of his reign as the Hausa- speaking state. The majority of the ancient Kano wall was built during his reign, and it became a symbol of civilization as a result of his ideals.
The king made sure that the wall was built with numerous gates, which enabled most of his residents to penetrate easily. He started with the base, height, and width, including the feet.
However, during its ancient times, the Jakara, which was used as the central Kurmi market, It was said that the Fulani were also residents of the place but had what was called a holy war around the period of 1804- 1908.
The Ancient Kano Business
At the Kano central market, the Jakara river remained an intermediate through which they were able to transact with other countries, not like today, where paper money is widely known.
Kano during her ancient period used cowries as a medium of exchange, as well as the trade by bater, which involved receiving Kola nuts from Ghana in exchange for their precious handwork, that is, leatherwork, cloth, and metal wares.
The same applied to the Sahara, where they received salt, and to Bauchi and Adamawa emirate slaves in exchange for cowry. Most of their weaponry, silk, perfume, and other materials that seem to improve their lives were given by the trans- Saharan camel caravans.
This happened in the period when the British colonized the African country. Though, at the time, the slave trade was one of the most important aspects of life and one of the most lucrative.
Today, Kano has grown to be one of Nigeria’ s highest revenue- generating cities. They are known for their industrious lives, the rearing of livestock, and the cultivation of plants such as groundnuts, which are exported, including the export of hides and skins of animals.
Another issue is the rearing of pigs by non- Muslim residents of the state, as pigs are still prohibited in Islam.
On the other hand, those who are involved in their rearing may be able to export them to Lagos, where they will be used for commercial purposes. Aside, the rearing of hens whose eggs are supplied to various parts of Nigeria is also a credit.
The major commodity of the state is the production of crafts such as mats, leather, and decorations using both Fulani and Indian designs, in particular metalworking done in their traditional industries.
Much is said about its creativity. While in their heavy industries comes the manufacture of iron, clothes, containers, packing cases, and bags, which are known as kano products, or made in Kano.
The Formation Of A Fundamentalist Muslim Community Among The Hausa
Following the establishment of Kano, the Fulanis were also part of those who made up Kano. They were said to be the ones who brought the Islamic religion into Kano and expected all residents of the state to follow it.
However, the Fulani people are cattle rearers and fierce horsemen. They are good at caring for their cattle and, by 1800, they established a fundamentalist Muslim community among the hausa in the northern part of Nigeria with a different leader, who was Uthman Dan Fodio.
They also participated in the slave trade. However, all of these began to be abolished with the help of the British, French, and German governments, who were those that introduced West African culture into the state along with encouraging Christianity.
The same people who ended the slave trade and made them domestic slaves used Kano residents and other Africans as laborers. At this point, the British administration, which was a forceful administration, used Frederick Lugard as one of the most experienced British colonial leaders in both India and East Africa.
With him, Sir George Goldies, the head of the Royal Niger River, was said to have had stronger sovereignty, even to the extent of surrounding the river Niger with his gunboat against the French.
After Goldies had exhausted his power, a group of new West African frontier forces was trained by Lugard under the command of Joseph Chamberlain.
During the Chamberlain era, he was able to exploit many British leaders in control of most of Nigeria’ s northern regions, including the Lugards, who controlled thousands of people in the region. Most British leaders in control of the north, particularly the west, began to destroy the majority of Fulani and their principles.
The Fall Of Kano
The fall of Kano was made by some of the West African frontier forces during the reign of Lord Lugard in 1899, who overshadowed most Kano fulanis.
He made it a British Protectorate. His goal was to act similarly to his peers but in a decisive manner, and he then launched the military campaign against the Caliphate in 1990, during the period when Kano was under the command of Thomas Morland, a well- known British officer with many ranks in his history in particular.
After a severe fight with the residents, even to the point of the emir fleeing the state, Thomas Morland and his men were able to bring down the wall by fire after a severe fight with the residents, allowing his people to be defeated as well.
Apart from that, Kano wasn’ t just left empty, rather the slaughter of their slaves was also involved by the British. Meanwhile, the battle started with the British campaign against Kano in January 1903 but was defeated in February 1903.
It marked their capture by the British leader despite the efforts of their Madaki, who sent troops against the British on a local weapon to defend the city. They were said to have been killed as some sustained injuries as well. This gave them serious control of the state.
How Sokoto Became A British Protectorate
After the West African frontier had invaded Kano and made a raid of what they were known for, they moved into Sokoto to do the same, but at the time, the Sokoto emir, Attahiru, fled and was later killed by a stray bullet during a skirmish while the British replaced his brother in his place.
It was at this point that the Sokoto entered into a treaty with the British leader, Lugard, assuring their protection as well, and at the end of their turn to have him rule the Sokoto, he made it mandatory that their Islamic relion and law be kept, including the abolishing of the slave trade, which he made a domestic one, using them as his own pleasure.
This brought much controversy among numerous emirs of the state, especially in the area of their monarchy.
However, in order to take it out of the British leader, the emir had to be involved in the decisive battle of Kwatarkwashi.
Nevertheless, both northern and southern Nigerians were merged into Britain’ s largest African colony, with Sir Fredrick Luguard as its general.