On the 30th of May, after suffering through years of suppression under Nigeria’s military government, the breakaway state of Biafra proclaims its independence from Nigeria.
One can’t speak of the Biafra Declaration without the enlightenment of Nigeria’s independence on October 1, 1960. Nigeria gained independence on October 1, 1960, through our heroes and their patriotism for the country.
Nigerians are divided into three major ethnic groups: Hausa, Fulani, and Igbo, primarily in the north. Yoruba in the west, and Igbo in the east. Well, this article tells us much about the Biafra declaration and its surrender.
Nigerian Call For Ethnic War
Much has been written about Biafra before and after the Nigerian civil war under the leadership of Yakubu Gowon and Ojukwu. The Gowon regim marked the neglect of the eastern people of Nigeria. General Yakubu Gowon and Ojukwu were well-known men who had witnessed the heat and pain of Nigeria’s civil war, which still
bothers many till date as many lives and properties were destroyed.
No president today would like to experience the heat or the events that took place during the civil war. Millions of Nigerians were killed, as well as their loved ones and friends.
The heroes who participated in one way or the other have all gone to their graves. And here we are, living, hoping to see what the future of Nigeria has for us.
How Igbos Were Killed In Northern Part Of Nigerian
From the northern part of Nigeria, they traced the beginning of religion and tribal war, which had, once due to religion, led to the massacre of Igbo-speaking people in Jos in 1946, when hausa and fulani riots erupted, killing many Igbo and leaving them homeless.
Igbo mistreatment by the north continued to occur even in Kano in 1953 before the western political crisis occurred in 1964, after Nigerians had got their independence. This brought about violence and killing, where the major people attacked were the Igbo.
In July 1966, the northern officers, along with their coup, killed General Anguyi Ironsi and several southern officers, and he was replaced by Yakubu Gowon.
He served as the head of the federal military government, together with Ojukwu as the president of the Eastern region, building much enmity based on the fact that Igbos in the north were killed, massacred, and stripped of most of their million-dollar properties.
The Republic Of Biafra Is Proclaim
Following the killing of the Eastern people, Ojukwu and Yakubu, along with other top police officials from their regions, held a meeting at Aburi in Ghana where they agreed to have a single-headed government, which was strickly refused by Ojukwu, after he made it clear of his intention to secede the Eastern region.
Because of this, the western leader, Obafemi Awolowo, opened up to let the entire house know that they could do as well with the eastern region.
On their return from the meeting, on May 30, 1967, Ojukwu decided to declare the Republic of Biafra, using the previous massacre of Igbo in the north, as well as the death of Aguiyi Ironsi, and in order to make it successful, most of Nigeria’s resources were taken with them, including the oil that Nigerians had sustained for a long time.
What Led To The Civil War?
Biafra was declared on May 30, 1967, but a civil war broke out on July 6, 1967, due to the taking away of oil from the northern Nigeria. At this point, the Biafra region wasn’t fully equipped or had their own weapons. This meant that they were not equipped to fight any battles and might have been unaware of the civil war occurring.
However, the oil shared among the four regions which made Yakubu Gowon immediately retaliate for an unsuccessful attack on July 6, 1967. In their own offensive and expansion efforts, they occupied the middle of the western part of Nigeria in the same year.
Though Yakubu Gowon and his coup failed unsuccessfully at their first attempt, that didn’t keep them aside as they decided to put an end to Biafra’s existence with the entire war that sprung up immediately after Biafra was declared.
The Surround Of Biafra
Immediately after the Nigerian army followed the final offensive that was declared by Yakubu Gowon on July 7, 1970, which became the year Biafra surrendered their Biafra through Phillip Effiong Ojukwu’s assistance as the vice president of Biafra, the remaining eastern people were therefore placed under the leadership of Joseph Achuzie after Ojukwu handed over power to Philip Effiong with the mindset to escape the land or ivory.
Prior to the escape of Ojukwu, Nigerians claimed to have moved abroad in search of peace. However, the battle involved Obasajo and other southern and western Nigerian leaders who deeply made it unfavorable for Biafra, while Phillip Effiong and Joseph Achuzie, along with other Biafra officers, made their way to Owerri and broadcast their surrender to Col. Obasanjo the same year.